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Windstream Test Speed

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Windstream Test Speed

Windstream tests all of their engines. When you are looking to purchase an automobile or truck you want to know that they will be built to the highest standards and you want to know that they will be reliable. This means that you want to know what kind of test you can expect to have performed on your vehicle.

Windstream has a comprehensive test package that is designed to evaluate the efficiency and speed of a truck. The package includes a speedometer, a gas gauge, a tire pressure gauge, a windshield washer, a battery tester, a gas and fuel system check, a fuel filter and a brake fluid leak test. Most of the items come with a warranty, although there are some that will not. If you purchase a Windstream vehicle then you will know that they will take care of their customers in the event of an accident. If you have questions about the performance of your truck or car then you should contact Windstream. They will be happy to answer any questions that you may have and they are always ready to give you a refund if the product is defective.

Windstream has been in the trucking industry since 1937 and they pride themselves on providing the best possible customer service. There is always someone available to help you with any questions you have and the staff is always willing to walk you through the parts list and the repair process. You will never be disappointed with your purchase when you purchase from Windstream. They have a large selection of trucks to choose from and you can be assured that they will make sure your vehicle is in good working order. You will have peace of mind knowing that your vehicle is safe. If you need to replace a part then you know that Windstream is a company you can trust.

Finding Your Way Through Blogging: Make It Successful

Blogging can be a fun way to utilize the Internet. There are a variety of sites available to begin your own blogging endeavor. The tips and suggestions in this article will give you some great advice about starting a blog or improve an existing blog.

Make sure that you add to your blog is updated often. New content on a regular basis is the one you have. If you do not update your blog very often, readers will have no motivation to keep visiting.

It is important that you are authentic. Don’t make it look like a “know-it-all.” Try being honest, honest, and transparent. Do this all time. A blog can be a singular expression of someone’s personality. If you aren’t right, don’t torture yourself about it. You are unique and no one can take your place.

Make your blogs short and concise. While it is important to provide the depth of detail that your readers are looking for, blogs that are too long can bore readers. Blog readers do not require detailed and unnecessary information. They want to get to the main point of the post.

Include images in your posts. Pictures can show a lot more powerful than words that proves it. This holds true when it comes to blogging. Images do display a lot more information than words alone. As a result, be sure you use lots of images on your blog.

Give your readers all of the different links to social networking sites they need to follow and share your blog easily. These portals give you multiple options to reach out and communicate with current and potential followers.

Don’t try to just write a lot of your blog that has nothing to do with anything. You want to make certain you are doing research on the right theme for your blog.

Post your blog articles to as many places on the internet. This will help ensure as many readers as possible. Don’t limit the mediums of outlets that you use. Your aim should be to do whatever it takes in order to get huge numbers of readers with just one important maneuver. Use every outlet and your disposal.

Make bullet lists as much as possible and use italics for keywords that are part of your niche. This helps the search engines access your content and will increase views on your site. This powerful tip can do wonders for your blog to be a success.

One key aspect of blogging is to enjoy the experience! Blogging can get boring and be uninteresting to any readers if you don’t feel passionate about your subject. Find a topic you love to write about! If you are creative and are enjoying what you’re doing, chances are your visitors will enjoy reading it.

It is important that your keywords italicized and bold. This makes the point of your keywords stand out and also improves your search engine results. If your keyword stands out, they are much more apt to visit the associated site, which helps your SEO and profits.

Social networking sites offer wonderful opportunities to increase traffic to your site to attract more visitors. Social media is the newest technology on the internet, but if you do not use it, you miss out on huge amounts of potential blog readers.

Make sure that you have a page set up. This lets visitors and readers contact you with any questions that they might have. You don’t know who is visiting the blog, and you might get some valuable feedback when you allow them to contact you.

Try making sure to partition long blog posts into divisions. A blog that is a really long post may be too much for a reader to deal with.

Keep track of what other bloggers are up to. Your competition will no doubt be doing the same ideas in mind.

Try to write about topics that are always in demand. It makes sense to create blogs around concepts that have longevity, as this will attract the most traffic to the blog over the long term.

Add polls or polls to your blog. Post the results as well as comments on what you think about the outcome. You can also use this information to refine your blog by catering to your readers’ interests.

Remember that maintaining a social business. This means that you should be very accessible to any and all of your readers. You also consider communicating with other people that blog about your niche. You won’t become successful if you just sit around and wait. You must be actively engaged in order to achieve success.

Post regularly and on a regular schedule. Write about several different things in your area of interest, and try not to be repetitive.

Never underestimate the importance of quality content and promotion. These are crucial for the success of any blog. If you don’t give people something worth reading, you will find that you start to lose readers. Even with high-quality content, you will get no readership if you fail to advertise your blog properly.

Try to use a good campaign to build links leading to your blog.

This will help your users decide if your blog has the type of content they are looking for and will enable people to know if your blog is what they were looking for.

Social networking sites can be used to help increase your blog. Create a page on Facebook, and then promote it to your friends and readers. You can also try sharing the most intriguing posts on your blog posts. If used properly, this can help you jump up the traffic and build up a readership.

A fantastic way to attract readers to your site is to trade links. You can exchange links with other popular blog owners of blogs that have similar content. Don’t waste your time by subscribing to linking schemes that deliver nothing but uninterested parties to your site who don’t have a genuine interest. Focus on getting quality traffic and this can help you rank higher in the search engines.

This article provided many tips to help you blog more effectively, for money or for fun. Putting these tips to use will make blogging easier for you, as well as make your blog more interesting to your readers. Use these ideas to generate or enhance your blog so you ensure it stands on its own, apart from the competition.

The Best Treatment For Drug Addicts

The consumption of drugs provides a certain kind of thrill to the addict, but at the same time it kills. Addicts generally use drugs to provide an escape from reality, to fight depression and to get euphoric effects. Drugs are like a slow poison, killing the person slowly so that, almost without knowing it, the person falls prey to it. It is difficult to come out of drug addiction. There are various drug treatment methods through which one can kick the addiction. Drug addicts can be given a complete treatment at a drug rehabilitation center and can also be provided with psychological help.

Types Of Drugs That Are Abused
Commonly used drugs are ketamine, cocaine, heroin, opium and marijuana. These drugs are used mainly by young people at parties. Other than these, there are hallucinatory drugs, like PCP, LSD, Foxy, and DMT, which are consumed by young people to get a surreal effect. There are certain inhaling drugs, which are inhaled to get a mind altering effect such as gasoline, propane, paint thinners and varnish removers.

Points To Remember
Drug addiction is increasing day by day, but addicts generally do not like to seek help from rehab centers. Without proper drug treatment there is no way out for addicts. Drug addiction should be diagnosed at an early stage for effective treatment. Certain things are required in order for drug treatment to be successful. For example, the rehab center should have professional support and all staff members should be trained and skilled. Before the commencement of treatment, the patient should visit the doctor to discuss all worries, expectations and fears.

Types Of Drug Treatment
Every drug addict experiences withdrawal symptoms, but these can be treated with special medication. It is better for the patient to stay in the drug treatment center for a long time. The duration of the treatment can vary from three to six months. Results are usually only seen after about six months of rigorous treatment.

The main objective of a drug treatment program is to help addicts get rid of their addiction. Two main types of drug treatment are prescribed and practiced throughout the world – one is short-term and the other is long-term. The short-term therapy is made up of three main components: outpatient therapy, residential therapy and medication therapy. The long-term drug treatment constitutes outpatient treatment through methadone maintenance for addicts of opium, and residential therapeutic treatment.

Long Term Drug Treatment
Long-term drug treatment therapy is used mainly for treating patients who have become addicted to ketamine, cocaine or heroin. A dose of synthetic opiate is given to the addict. In most cases, methadone is used. Depending on the intensity of the addiction, the doses are adjusted. An adequate dose can curb the effect of the drugs. Once the treatment is over a stable state should be maintained.

Short Term Drug Treatment
Short-term drug treatment is different to the long-term therapy, which is of lower intensity. Short-term drug therapy is a multi-faceted best way to get off suboxone, comprehensive and highly individual program. Short-term drug therapy is designed to deal with the chemical dependency issues of the patient while they continue to live at home. The addict should be informed about the harmful consequences of drug addiction. This is educational treatment rather than therapeutic treatment. Short-term therapy is given to a patient who needs a companionate and encouraging atmosphere.

At the end of the day, an addictive drug only brings loneliness, unhappiness, and suicidal tendencies, taking away friends, family and peace of mind. If you or any of your friends or family suffer from drug addiction, make sure to get the best drug treatment, depending on the intensity of the abuse.

 

Hair Loss Treatment – Women Drug Treatment

American hair loss association is an institution for education and research for hair loss treatment. They have started introducing drugs that could be useful in the hair loss treatment for women. They are not just new drugs, but they are the existing one with a lesser amount of dosage and combination of different drugs.

Another reason why this treatment of drug in female is avoided is because not all the hair loss in female is due to androgenic loss. When there is a hair loss due to very low amount of androgenic hormone in female then drugs at prescribed dosage can be used until there is a remarkable change in the hair re growth.

When the usage of this treatment is started in female there is a significant amount of hair growth and self esteem in female. These are suggested by the reviews made by them. Right amount of the drugs will always be useful both in male and female and also in all the kinds of disease in the human being. Care must be taken that hair does not fall during the treatment period.

Lets now discuss about some drugs in the hair loss treatment of women. Some of the drugs are minoxidil 2% as topical treatment, Aldactone, Tagamet, Estrogen, Cyproterone Acetate and oral contraceptives. The manufacturer of minoxidil suggests only two percent of concentration should be used by females. Because it has not received the FDA approval for marketing the five percent concentrated minoxidil.

Minoxidil is used in the treatment of high blood pressure which resulted in the stimulation of hair growth as a side effect. This made them to make a solution of minoxidil and apply directly on the scalp. This process stimulated the growth of hair. Women with androgeneic alopecia can use this product of minoxidil.

Cimetidine is a drug for hair loss treatment is marketed under the brand name Tagamet. It has a powerful anti-androgenic effect and blocks the De-Hydro Testosterone hormone from binding the follicle receptor sites and thus allowing the hair follicles to do its work of hair growth.

This drug is used to treat excess facial hair growth in women and the research studied in women with androgenic alopecia showing better result in the hair growth. A high dosage is needed to achieve hair growth result in female and so it should not be used by men should use this to treat their hair loss because it will cause feminizing effects including sexual side effects.

Use of estrogen as hair loss treatment drug in women will also increase the growth of hair in female if the hair loss problem is due to the hormonal deficiency. This is known as hormone therapy. Estrogen is mainly given to women during menopause. It is used as a treatment for androgenetic Alopecia.

 

Consider Our Article A Course In Web Hosting 101

A lot of people don’t realize that websites are stored when they first visit. This is where understanding web hosting will be useful. Every website owner needs to know the many options available for web hosting service that there is. This article has many tips on web hosting for the inexperienced website owners.

The type and number of features offered may vary between hosts, which may differ significantly from one server to another.When comparing web hosting services, ensure that the package you compare from each one contains the feature(s) you need.

Choose a host that doesn’t have constant outages. Don’t choose a company that experiences frequent outages has clearly not taken the proper precautions to protect their clients.Frequent downtime demonstrates a poor business model, so do not make a commitment to such a company.

Look at backup host sites if you don’t like particular aspects of your current hosting company. If you do this and the problem turns out to be a major one, you can easily switch to one of the services you’ve researched and won’t have to risk your website being down altogether while you figure out a new plan.

Your host would actually have the control of your domain than you!

Make a list before shopping for a web host. Figure out what it is you need and needs beforehand and see what web hosts matches these expectations. This way, rather than a single factor at the potential expense of others.

Is free hosting something you’ve been contemplating?If you choose not to do this, you’ve lost everything.

The amount that web hosts charge for service packages depends upon how many visitors you have visiting your site receives. Find out how your host is going to bill you: some hosts charge different flat rates and your site progresses from one category to the other as it gets more traffic, or if they bill you in steps.

If security is important for your website, pay more to have what is known as secure server certificate.

You should check out all of the profits you before settling with a web hosting services. Rates can vary greatly, and the cheaper models can be very reliable. While some expensive hosts may provide more bandwidth, you still might suffer the same amount of site outages or downtime.

Use this information to tweak the way that you reach out to the intended market for your website to attract more customers.

Look around for customer reviews from independent sites to see how decent the quality of this host provider. These reviews will help you a quality service from other hosts.

Many hosts are actually just affiliate accounts linked to the major players in the field.

Try to find a hosting service that has a cPanel. A cPanel assists you to add popular applications onto your website with just a few clicks of the mouse. These applications are usually user friendly and user-friendly to install. It also makes your website’s management much quicker and easier.

Reputation is an important asset for any good web hosts. Companies that don’t provide good service should be easily found out.

Now that you have read the preceding article, you probably realize that new owners of websites normally have no clue as to where they should store the information for their site. After studying the various types of web hosts, it should be simple to determine which type will best suit your needs. Utilize the tips given in the above article in order to get through all the clutter that some hosts provide so that you can pick the right host for you.

Introduction To IP Addressing And Networking

NETWORKING BASICS

A network can be defined as the interconnection of autonomous computers linked together to facilitate communication while networking is the simple concept of connected computers.

Networks and networking have grown exponentially over the last 15years; they have evolved at light speed just to keep up with huge increases in basic critical user needs such as sharing data and printers, as well as more advanced demands such as video conferencing.

TYPES OF NETWORKS

LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN)

A LAN (Local Area Network) is a group of computers and network devices connected together, usually within the same building. A Local Area Network (LAN) is a high-speed communication system designed to link computers and other data processing devices together within a small geographical area, such as a workgroup, department, or building. Local Area Networks implement shared access technology. This means that all the devices attached to the LAN share a single communications medium, usually a coaxial, twisted pair or fibre optic cable.

METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORK (MAN)

Metropolitan area networks or MANs are large computer networks usually spanning a city or a town. They typically use wireless infrastructure or optical fibre connections to link their sites.

The IEEE 802-2001 standard describes a MAN as being: “A MAN is optimized for a larger geographical area than is a LAN, ranging from several blocks of buildings to entire cities. MANs can also depend on communications channels of moderate to high data rates. A MAN might be owned and operated by a single organization, but it usually will be used by many individuals and organizations. MANs might also be owned and operated as public utilities. They will often provide means for internetworking of local networks. Metropolitan area networks can span up to 50km.”

WIDE AREA NETWORK (WAN)

Wide Area Network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a broad area. A WAN in compares to a MAN, is not restricted to a geographical location, although it might be restricted to a geographical locations, it might also be confined within the bounds of a state or country. A WAN connects several LANs, and may be limited to an enterprise (a corporation or organization) or accessible to the public.

The technology is high speed and relatively expensive. The INTERNET is an example of a worldwide public WAN.

NETWORKING DEVICES

ROUTERS

Routers are used to connect networks together and route packets of data from one network to another. Routers, by default break up a broadcast domain, which is the set of all devices on a network segment that hear all broadcasts sent on that segment.

Routers also break up collision domains. This is an Ethernet term used to describe a network scenario where one particular device sends a packet on a network segment, forcing every other device on that segment to pay attention to it. At the same time, a different device tries to transmit, leading to a collision, after which both devices must retransmit one at a time.

Routers run on the layer 3 of the OSI (Open System Interconnection) reference model.

SWITCHES

Switches are used for network segmentation based on the MAC addresses. Switches look at the incoming frame’s hardware addresses before deciding to either forward the frame or drop it.

Switches break up collision domains but the hosts on the switch are still members of one big broadcast domain.

HUB

A hub is really a multiple port repeater. A repeater receives a digital signal and re-amplifies or regenerates that signal, and then forwards the digital signal out all active ports without looking at any data. An active hub does the same thing. This means all devices plugged into a hub are in the same collision domain as well as in the same broadcast domain, which means that devices share the same bandwidth. Hubs operate at the physical layer of the OSI model.

IP ADDRESSING

An IP address is a numeric identifier assigned to each machine on an IP network. It designates the specific location of a device on the network. An IP address is a software address and designed to allow host on one network to communicate with a host on a different network regardless of the type of LANs the hosts are participating in.

IP TERMINOLOGIES

Bit: A bit is one digit, either a 1 or a 0.

Byte: A byte is 7 or 8 bits, depending on whether parity is used.

Octet: An octet, made up of 8 bits is just an ordinary 8 bit binary number. In most cases byte and octet are completely interchangeable.

Network address: This is the designation used in routing to send packets to a remote network. For example 10.0.0.0, 172.16.0.0, and 192.168.10.0 are network addresses.

Broadcast address: The address used by applications and hosts to send information to all nodes on a network is called the broadcast address. Examples include 255.255.255.255 which is all networks, all nodes; 172.16.255.255, which is all subnets and hosts on network 172.16.0.0.

HEIRARCHICAL IP ADDRESSING SCHEME

An IP address consists of 32 bits of information (IPV4). IPV6, a new version of IP consists of 128 bits of information. The 32 bits IP is divided into four sections referred to as octet or bytes each containing 1 byte (8bits).

An IP address is depicted using any of these 3 methods.

Dotted decimal, as in 172.16.30.56

Binary, as in 10101100.00010000.00011110.00111000

Hexadecimal, as in AC.10.1E.38

All this examples represent the same IP address. But the most commonly used is the dotted decimal. The Windows Registry stores a machine’s IP address in hex.

The 32 bit IP address is a structured or hierarchical address, as opposed to a flat non hierarchical address. Although either type of addressing scheme could have been used, hierarchical addressing was chosen for a good reason. The advantage of this scheme is that it can handle a large number of addresses, namely 4.3 billion (a 32 bit address space with two possible values for each position that is either 1 or 0 gives 237, or 4,294,967,296).

The disadvantage of the flat addressing scheme relates to routing. If every address were unique, all routers on the internet would need to store the address of each and every machine on the internet. This would make efficient routing impossible.

NETWORK ADDRESS RANGE

The network address uniquely identifies each network. Every machine on the same network shares that network address as part of its IP address. In the IP address of 172.16.30.56, 172.16 is the network address.

The node address is assigned to and uniquely identifies each machine on a network. This number can also be referred to as host address. In 172.16.30.56, 30.56 is the node address. Class A network is used when a small number of networks possessing a very large number of nodes are needed. Class C network is used when numerous networks with a small number of node is needed.

CLASS A ADDRESSES

The first bit of the first byte in a class A network address must always be off or 0. This means a class A address must be between 0 and 127, inclusive.

0xxxxxxx.hhhhhhhh.hhhhhhhh.hhhhhhhh

If we turn the other 7 bits all off and then turn them all on, we’ll find the class A range of network addresses.

00000000 = 0

01111111 = 127

Class A format is network.node.node.node, so for example in the IP address 49.22.102.70, the 49 is the network address and 22.102.70 is the node address. Every machine on this particular network would have the distinctive network address of 49.

CLASS B ADDRESSES

The first bit of the first byte must always be turned on, but the second bit must always be turned off.

01xxxxxx.xxxxxxxx.hhhhhhhh.hhhhhhhh

If we can turn the first bit on and the second bit off and if the other 6 bits all off and then all on, we’ll find the class B range of network addresses.

10000000 = 128

10111111 = 191

Class B format is network.network.node.node, so far in the IP address 132.163.40.57, the 132.163 is the network address and 40.57 is the node address.

CLASS C ADDRESSES

The first and second bit of the first byte must always be turned on, but the third bit can never be on.

110xxxxx.xxxxxxxx.xxxxxxxx.hhhhhhhh

If we turn the first and second bit on and the third bit off and then all other 5 bits all off and all on, we’ll find the class C range of network address.

11000000 = 192

11011111 = 223

Class C format is network.network.network.node, for example in the IP address 195.166.231.75, the 195.166.231 is the network address and 75 is the node address.

CLASS D AND CLASS E ADDRESSES

The address between 224 and 255 are reserved for class D and E networks. Class D (224-239) is used for multicast addresses and class E (240-255) for scientific purposes.

PRIVATE IP ADDRESSES

Private IP addresses are those that can be used on a private network, but they’re not routable through the internet. This is designed for the purpose of creating a measure of well-needed security, but it also conveniently saves valuable IP address space. If every host on every network had to have real routable IP addresses, we would have run out of IP addresses to hand out years ago.

Class A 10.0.0.0 through 10.255.255.255

Class B 172.16.0.0 through 172.31.255.255

Class C 192.168.0.0 through 192.168.255.255

TROUBLESHOOTING IP ADDRESSING

Here are the troubleshooting steps in resolving a problem on an IP network.

1. Open a DOS window and ping 127.0.0.1. This is the diagnostic or loopback address, and if you get a successful ping, your IP stack is considered to be initialized. If it fails, then you have an IP stack failure and need to reinstall TCP/IP on the host.

2. From the DOS window, ping the IP addresses of the local host. If that’s successful, then your Network Interface Card (NIC) card is functioning. If it fails, then there is a problem with the NIC card. This doesn’t mean that a cable is plugged into the NIC, only that the IP protocol stack on the host can communicate to the NIC.

3. From the DOS window, ping the default gateway. If the ping works, it means that the NIC is plugged into the network and can communicate on the local network. If it fails, then you have a local physical network problem that could be happening anywhere from the NIC to the gateway.

4. If steps 1 through 3 were successful, try to ping the remote server. If that works then you have IP communication between then local host and the remote server, you also know that the remote physical network is working.

5. If the user still can’t communicate with the server after steps 1 through 4 were successful, then there’s probably a resolution problem and there is need to check the Domain Name Server (DNS) settings.

NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION

Network Address Translation (NAT) is used mainly to translate private inside addresses on a network to a global outside address. The main idea is to conserve internet global address space, but it also increases network security by hiding internal IP addresses from external networks.

TABLE 3: NAT ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

ADVANTAGES

Conserves legally registered addresses.

Reduces address overlap occurrence.

Increases flexibility when connecting to internet.

Eliminates address renumbering as network changes.

Translation introduces switching path delays

DISADVANTAGES

Loss of end-to-end traceability

Certain applications will not function with NAT enabled.

TYPES OF NAT

Static NAT: This type of NAT is designed to allow one-to-one mapping between local and global addresses. Static NAT requires that there is one real internet IP address for every host on your network.

Dynamic NAT: This version gives one the ability to map an unregistered IP address to a registered IP address from out of a pool of registered IP addresses.

Overloading: This is also known as Port Address Translation (PAT). It is the most popular type of NAT configuration. Overloading is a form of dynamic NAT that maps multiple unregistered IP address to a single registered IP address by using different ports. With overloading thousands of users can connect to the internet using only one real global IP address.

NAT TERMINOLOGIES
Local addresses: Name of local hosts before translation.

Global addresses: Name of addresses after translation.

Inside local: Name of inside source address before translation.

Outside local: Name of destination host before translation.

Inside global: Name of inside hosts after translation

Outside global: Name of outside destination host after translation.

LAYER2 SWITCHING

Layer2 switching is the process of using the hardware address of devices on a LAN to segment a network. The term layer2 switching is used because switches operate on the data-link layer which is the second layer of the OSI reference model.

Layer2 switching is considered hardware-based bridging because it uses specialized hardware called an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). ASICs can run up to gigabit speeds with very low latency rates.

Switches read each frame as it passes through the network, the layer2 device then puts the source hardware address in a filter table and keeps track of which port the frame was received on. The information (logged in the switch’s filter table) is what helps the machine determine the location of a specific sending device. After a filter table is built on the layer2 device, it will only forward frames to the segment where the destination hardware is located. If the destination device is on the same segment as the frame, the layer2 device will block the frame from going to any other segments. If the destination is on a different segment, the frame can only be transmitted to that segment. This is called TRANSPARENT BRIDGING.

When a switch interface receives a frame with a destination hardware address that isn’t found in the device filter table, it will forward the frame to all connected segments. If the unknown device that was sent the frame replies to this forwarding action, the switch updates its filter table regarding that device’s location.

ADVANTAGES OF LAYER2 SWITCHING

The biggest benefit of LAN switching over hub-centred implementations is that each device on every segment plugged into a switch can transmit silmatenously whereas hubs only allow one device per network segment to communicate at a time.

Switches are faster than routers because they don’t take time looking at the Network layer header information. Instead, they look at the frame’s hardware address before deciding to either forward the frame or drop it.

Switches create private dedicated collision domains and provide independent bandwidth on each port unlike hubs. The figure below shows five hosts connected to a switch, all running 10Mbps half-duplex to the server. Unlike the hub, each host has 10Mbps dedicated communication to the server.

LIMITATIONS OF LAYER2 SWITCHING

Switched networks break up collision domains but the network is still one large broadcast domain. This does not only limits your network’s size and growth potential, but can also reduce its overall performance.

FUNCTIONS OF LAYER2 SWITCHING

There are three distinct functions of layer2 switching, these are

Address learning.

Forward/filter decision

Loop avoidance.

ADDRESS LEARNING

When a switch is first powered on, the MAC forward/filter table is empty. When a device transmits and an interface receives the frame, the switch places the frame source address in the MAC forward/filter table, allowing it to remember which interface the sending device is located on. The switch then has no choice but to flood the network with this frame out of every port except the source port because it has no idea where the destination device is actually located.

If a device answers the flooded frame and sends a frame back, then the switch will take source address from that frame and place that MAC address in its database as well, associating this address with the interface that received the frame. Since the switch now has both of the relevant MAC addresses in its filtering table, the two devices can now make a point to point connection. The switch doesn’t need to flood the frame as it did the first time.

If there is no communication to a particular address within a certain amount of time, the switch will flush the entry from the database to keep it as current as possible.

FORWARD/FILTER DECISIONS

When a frame arrives at a switch interface, the destination hardware address is compared to the forward/filter MAC database. If the destination hardware address is known and listed in the database, the frame is sent out only the correct exit interface.

The switch doesn’t transmit the frame out any interface except for the destination interface. This preserves bandwidth on the other network segments and is called FRAME FILTERING.

LOOP AVOIDANCE

When two switches are connected together, redundant links between the switches are a good idea because they help prevent complete network failures in the event one link stops working.

Redundant links are extremely helpful but they often cause more problems than they solve, this is because frames can be flooded down all redundant links silmatenously creating network loops.

Switches use a protocol called STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) created by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) now Compaq to avoid network loops by shutting down redundant links. With STP running, frames will be forwarded only on the premium STP-picked link.

CONFIGURING THE CISCO 2950 CATALYST SWITCH FAMILY.

The 2950 switch is one of the Cisco Catalyst switch family’s high-end model. The 2950 comes in many flavours and run 10Mbps all the way up to 1Gbps switched ports with either twisted-pair or fibre. They can provide basic data, video and voice services.

2950 SWITCH STARTUP

When the 2950 switch is first powered on, it runs through a Power-on-Self-test (POST). At first all port LEDs are green, and if upon completion the post determines that all ports are in good shape, all the LEDs blink and then turn off. But if the POST finds a port that has failed both the system’s LED and the port’s LEDs turn amber.

However, unlike a router, the switch is actually usable in Fresh-out-of-the-box condition. You can just plug the switch into your network and connect network segment together without any configuration.

To connect to the Cisco switch, use a rolled Ethernet cable to connect a host to a switch console serial communication port. Once you have the correct cable connected from your PC to the Cisco switch, you can start HyperTerminal to create a console connection and configure the device as follows:

1. Open HyperTerminal by clicking on start button and then All programs, then Accessories, then Communication, then click on HyperTerminal. Enter a name for the connection. It is irrelevant what you name it. Then click OK.

2. Choose the communication port either COM1 or COM2, whichever is open on your PC.

3. Now at the port settings. The default values (2400bps and no flow control hardware) will not work, you must set the port settings as shown in the figure below.

Notice that the bit rate is set to 9600 and the flow control is set to none. At this point click OK and press the Enter key, and you should be connected to your Cisco switch console port.

Here’s the 2950 switch’s initial output:

— System Configuration Dialog —

Would you like to enter the initial configuration dialog? [Yes/no]: no

Press RETURN to get started!

00:04:53: %LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Vlan1, changed state to administratively down

00:04:54: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Vlan1, changed state to down
Switch>

THE CONFIGURATION

The switch> prompt is called the user exec mode and it’s mostly used to view statistics. You can only view and change configuration of a Cisco switch in privileged exec mode which you get into with the enable command.

Switch>

Switch> enable

Switch#

Switch# disable

Switch>

The global configuration mode can be entered from the privileged mode by using the configure terminal command or config t for short.
Switch# config t
Enter the configuration commands, one per line, End with CNTL/Z.
Switch(config)# hostname zenith
Zenith(config)#

The hostname command is used in naming the switch. The hostname of a switch is only locally significant but it’s still helpful to set a hostname on a switch so that you can identify the switch when connecting to it.

SETTING THE ENABLE MODE PASSWORDS AND LINE PASSWORD.

Zenith> enable

Zenith# config t

Enter the configuration commands, one per line, End with CNTL/Z.

Zenith(config)# enable password bank

Zenith(config)# enable secret middle

The enable password bank command sets the enable password as bank and the enable secret middle command sets the enable secret password as middle. The enable secret password is more secure and it supersedes the enable password if it is set. The enable secret password and the enable password cannot be the same on the 2950 switch.

Zenith(config)# line ?

First line number

console Primary terminal line

vty Virtual terminal

Zenith(config)# line vty ?

First line number

Zenith(config)# line vty 0 15

Zenith(config-line)# login

Zenith(config-line)# password alex

Zenith(config-line)# line con 0

Zenith(config-line)# login

Zenith(config-line)# password malouda

Zenith(config-line)# exit

Zenith(config)# exit

Zenith#

The line vty 0 15, login and password alex commands set the telnet password to alex and the line con 0, login, and password malouda commands sets the console password to malouda.

SETTING IP INFORMATION

You don’t have to set any IP configuration on the switch to make it work. You can just plug it in. But there are two reasons we set IP address information on the switch.

To manage the switch via Telnet or other management software.

To configure the switch with different VLANs and other network functions.

Zenith(config)# int vlan 1

Zenith(config-if)# ip address 172.16.10.17 255.255.255.0

Zenith(config-if)# no shutdown

Zenith(config-if)# exit

Zenith(config)# ip default-gateway 192.168.0.1

Zenith(config)#

The IP address is set to 172.16.10.17 and the no shutdown command must be applied to enable the interface.

CONFIGURING INTERFACE DESCRIPTIONS

You can administratively set a name for each interface on the switches with the description command.

Zenith(config)# int fastethernet 0/ ?

FastEthernet Interface number.

Zenith(config)# int fastethernet 0/1

Zenith(config-if)# description Sales LAN

Zenith(config-if)# int f0/12

Zenith(config-if)# description Connection to Mail server

Zenith(config-if)# CNTL/Z
Zenith#

You can look at the descriptions at any time with either the show interface command or the show running-config command from the global configuration mode.

ERASING AND SAVING THE SWITCH CONFIGURATION
Zenith# copy running-config startup-config
Zenith# erase startup-config

The first command copies the configuration into the NVRAM (Non-volatile RAM) while the erase startup-config command erases the switch configuration.

Zenith# erase startup-config

Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all files! Continue? [confirm] [Enter]

[OK]

Erase of nvram: complete

Zenith#

VIRTUAL LAN (VLAN)

A Virtual LAN (VLAN) is a logical grouping of network users and resources connected to administratively defined ports on a switch. When one create VLANs, one creates smaller broadcast domains within a switched internetwork by assigning different ports on the switch to different subnetworks. A VLAN is treated like its own subnet or broadcast domain, which means that frames broadcast onto the network are only switched between ports logically grouped within the same VLAN.
By default, no hosts in a specific VLAN can communicate with any other hosts that are members of another VLAN.
5.1 ADVANTAGES OF VLAN

A group of users needing security can be put into a VLAN so that no user outside the VLAN can communicate with them.

As a logical grouping of users by function, VLANs can be considered independent from their physical or geographical locations.

VLANs can enhance network security.

It can block broadcast storms caused by a faulty NIC (Network Interface Card) card.

VLANs increase the number of broadcast domains while decreasing their sizes.

VLAN MEMBERSHIP

VLANs are usually created by the administrator, who then assigns switch ports to each VLAN. Such a VLAN is called a static VLAN. If the administrator wants to do a little more work up front and assign all the host devices hardware addresses into a database, then the switch can be configured to assign VLANs dynamically whenever a host is plugged into a switch. This is called dynamic VLAN.

STATIC VLANs

Static VLANs are the usual way of creating VLANs, and they’re also the most secure. The switch port that you assign a VLAN association to always maintain that association until an administrator manually changes that port assignment.

DYNAMIC VLANs

A dynamic VLAN determines a node’s VLAN assignment automatically. Using intelligent management software, you can base assignment on hardware addresses, protocols, or even applications to create dynamic VLANs.

An example is the VLAN Management Policy Server (VMPS) service used to set up a database of MAC addresses that can be used for dynamic addressing of VLANs. A VMPS database maps MAC addresses to VLANs.

FRAME TAGGING

As frames are switched through the network, switches must be able to keep track of all the frames. Frames are handled differently according to the type of link they are traversing. The frame identification method uniquely assigns user defined ID to each frame. This is sometimes referred to as the “VLAN ID”.

Each switch that the frame reaches must first identify the VLAN ID from the frame tag, and then it finds out what to do with the frame by looking at the information in the filter table. If the frame reaches a switch that has another trunked link, the frame will be forwarded out the trunk-link port.

Once the frame reaches an exit to an access link matching the frame’s VLAN ID, the switch removes the VLAN identifier. This is so the destination device can receive the frame without having to understand their VLAN identification.

There are two different types of links in a switched environment, they are:
Access links: This type of link is only part of one VLAN. Any device attached to an access link is unaware of a VLAN membership; the device just assumes its part of a broadcast domain. Access link devices cannot communicate with devices outside their VLAN unless the packet is routed.
Trunk links: Trunk links can carry multiple VLANs. A trunk link is a 100 or 1000Mbps point to point link between two switches, between a switch and server. These carry the traffic of multiple VLANs from 1 to 1005 at a time. Trunking allows you to make a single port part of multiple VLANS at the same time. It also allows VLANs to span across multiple switches.

VLAN IDENTIFICATION METHODS

There are basically two ways of frame tagging.

Inter-Switch Link (ISL)

IEEE 802.1Q

The main purpose of ISL and 802.1Q frame tagging methods is to provide interswitch VLAN communication.

Inter-switch Link (ISL) Protocol: This is proprietary to Cisco switches, and it is used for fast Ethernet and gigabit Ethernet links only. ISL routing can be used on a switch port, router interfaces and server interface cards to trunk a server.

IEEE 802.1Q: Created by the IEEE as a standard method of frame tagging, it isn’t Cisco proprietary so if you’re trunking between a Cisco switched link and a different brand of switch; you have to use 802.1Q for the trunk link to work.

VLAN TRUNKING PROTOCOL (VTP)

This protocol was created by Cisco but it is not proprietary. The basic goals of VLAN Trunking protocol (VTP) are to manage all configured VLANs across a switched internetwork and to maintain consistency through the network. VTP allows an administrator to add, delete and rename VLANs on a switch, information that is then propagated to all other switches in the VTP domain.

Before one can get VTP to manage VLANs across the network, one has to create a VTP server. All switches sharing the same VLAN information must be in the same VTP domain.

One can use a VTP domain if there is more than one switch connected in a network, but if all the switches are in only one VLAN, there is no need to use VTP. VTP information is set between switches via trunk port.

 

BEST FREE YouTube To MP3 Downloader

YouTube to Mp3 Converter is a stage that will let you convert the YouTube recordings to the sound arrangement for example MP3. You can change over recordings by entering the YouTube video URL and tapping the catch as the order to change over the video. In a basic 2-3 stages, you will get the MP3 record.

A large portion of the devices likewise uphold different configurations for change. These apparatuses are anything but difficult to utilize and can be utilized from your program.

Truth Check: The YouTube application doesn’t uphold tuning in to music outside the application and thus changing the video over to Mp3 design and downloading it will be an advantageous alternative.

YouTube has more music assortment contrasted with other websites. Brandwatch research says that 93% of the most-watched recordings are the music recordings on YouTube until Jan 2020. Musically found that 55% of customers routinely watch music recordings on YouTube.

YouTube To MP3 Converter

Genius Tip: While picking the YouTube to Mp3 converter, you can consider a few elements like the device’s capacity to change over the video at a quick speed, bunch downloading highlight, security principles, usability, and the cost of the device.

To begin with, you have to assemble your necessities like the quantity of recordings to be changed over, and so forth On the off chance that it should be done just a single time or twice, at that point the online apparatus is a decent alternative else you can likewise consider downloading a work area application.

Safeguards that ought to be taken while utilizing a free YouTube to MP3 Converter are enrolled beneath:

Download the apparatus from the official site.

It is prescribed to check the download with great Antivirus Software.

Be cautious while rounding out the structures and adding individual data.

Barely any instruments give the office to look to recordings from the apparatus itself. You should be cautious with this component as certain devices download the recordings illicitly.

Screen your PC’s conduct subsequent to downloading the instrument, on the off chance that it is getting moderate, and so on In such cases, you ought to uninstall the apparatus totally.

Peruse the client’s surveys for the apparatus. You will become more acquainted with about the upsides and downsides of the apparatuses and it will assist you with the choice of the device.

Online Converter Vs Desktop Converter:

Picking the YouTube to MP3  converter relies upon the one’s necessity. As said previously, online apparatuses will be a decent alternative for one-time clients. Additionally, it doesn’t need any establishment and consequently it doesn’t occupy room in your PC.

Work area applications are quicker than online instruments as they don’t handle the information on a far off worker. A few applications can change different YouTube recordings over to MP3 design on the double.

Additionally, while utilizing the online device there is an opportunity of malware assault. So you ought to be cautious while picking the device.

Gadget Compatibility of YouTube to MP3 Converters:

Online instruments will change over the document and will let you download this changed over record. A portion of these online apparatuses have framework limitations on downloading these changed over files. For example, YouTubetoMP3 may not let you download the record on iOS gadgets on account of program similarity. A few apparatuses likewise give applications to Android and iOS gadgets that will be useful in utilizing the instrument on tablets and cell phones.

More often than not, work area applications are accessible for Windows systems. For example, aTube Catcher.

Advantages Of YouTube To Mp3 Conversion instruments

There are a ton of music applications like Spotify and Amazon Music accessible on the lookout however they are paid instruments though the majority of the YouTube to Mp3 converters are allowed to utilize. Likewise, YouTube has more music assortments contrasted with different sites. Some free music Apps are additionally accessible yet individuals like to look through the music recordings on YouTube and convert it into Mp3.

The picture underneath will show you the most mainstream search terms of 2019. It incorporates the expression “YouTube to Mp3” and subsequently it clarifies the notoriety of YouTube to MP3 converters.

It is a one-time errand of changing over the music document to Mp3 and afterward you can keep and utilize that changed over record until the end of time. The changed over record can be utilized on any gadget that is viable with MP3 design and without a web association. These apparatuses will likewise assist you with extricating the particular piece of recordings so you can utilize it. For example, making a ringtone.

As a result of the apparent multitude of highlights and advantages gave by YouTube to MP3 converters, individuals want to utilize it.

Why Is Mp3 The Popular Audio Format?

MP3 design is the most mainstream sound configuration. These records can be made at an assortment of spot rates with the goal that you can adjust the quality and size of the document. On account of the document’s productive size, it has become the standard configuration to trade the record on the web. This organization is upheld by all cutting edge programs and thus it is the best sound document design for the program’s similarity too.

Highlights that YouTube to Mp3 Converter can give are:

Capacity to change over the document in high-goal.

An office to pick the quality for the document change.

A few instruments will permit you to download the captions. This element is required on the off chance that you need to download a video that is in an unexpected language in comparison to your primary language.

Some business apparatuses like 4K Video Downloader give progressed highlights like cross-stage backing and highlights to download 3D YouTube recordings.

Cluster download – this component will be extremely useful to download the playlists (Watch Later Playlist, and so on)

Alongside the Mp3, the vast majority of the apparatuses will permit you to change over the record into different configurations.

A few instruments give worked in video altering highlights.

Lawful or illicit?

YouTube offers YouTube Red help to permit lawfully download YouTube recordings yet it is a membership administration. In fact, changing a YouTube video over to Mp3 isn’t unlawful however downloading copyrighted substance is illicit. https://ytdl.co/mp3 says that it is against US copyright law to utilize a YouTube converter to download an individual duplicate, yet it is legitimate to download a changed over YouTube video as a Mp3 record.

All About Online Money Transfer

Online money transfer or electronic money services are growing in popularity with many different options and service providers available. It also goes by the names e-currency, electronic currency, e-money, digital cash, digital money or digital currency.

This is when cash is only exchanged electronically or online. A computer and the internet are both needed to transfer monies online. Anyone that wants an online monies transfer must also have a source of electronic money, such as direct deposit or an Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) account. Online money transfer is an electronic representation of money. The money does exist yet it is not physically changing hands. Online money transfer is popular as it saves time as well as providing more time to pay a bill on time.

Working with an online payment transfer service makes moving electronic currency easy. Usually these services are provided in all different currency forms such as euro, ruble and yen as well as dollars. The services are able to transform the amount to the equivalent needed by the receiving party. An example is if someone is using an online transfer in France, but the payment is going to the US then it can be sent in one form and received in dollars.

Online cash transfer is done through a service and the person sending is usually a member. They put cash in the account perhaps from a credit card or transferring it online from their bank account. The money in the account could also be payment from services they have performed. A fee is deducted from the money being sent during an online money transfer to another person. The person being sent the money could be getting the money in their own account, in a bank account, money order or even a check. It all depends on what the service provides and what works for the individuals involved. Often fees are.8% of the transaction. Some of the online money transfer businesses have reloadable cards where the money can be transferred allowing the card to work as cash.

Another way of doing an online payment transfer 신용카드현금화 is when someone pays bills. Instead of writing a check, for example, the person sets up an account that will pay the bill using an electronic check. This is a convenient way to pay bills without using up checks and stamps.

 

Gym Membership – Top Tips to Cut Costs While Fighting Flab

Local Leisure Centres

These pocket-friendly gyms are the kind that you find in your local leisure centre. They’re cheap because they’re partly funded by local authority or run on a not-for-profit basis. Although not all leisure centres have the latest equipment and machines, some are in the same league as private health clubs.

In most leisure centres, you have the option of either taking out a monthly subscription or the opportunity to pay as you go, costing only a few quid per session. If you’re unsure as to whether or not the gym is your cup of tea, try paying for the first few visits and if you decide to carry on then take up the monthly membership.

Off-peak memberships

The vast majority of gyms offer a cheaper membership on the condition that you only go for sessions during off-peak times. Off-peak times are usually before 4-5pm on weekdays and after 4-5pm on weekends but the times vary from club to club, even those from the same chain – so it’s best to contact your local club for more info. Clubs which offer off-peak membership include:

• Fitness First’s off-peak membership gives you unlimited gym use during off-peak hours.
• Virgin Active is gradually phasing out its off-peak memberships so they aren’t available at all clubs, but if you contact your local centre they’ll be able to tell you more
• David Lloyd offers a range of off-peak memberships to suit your needs. Contact your local club for details.
• Nuffield Health health clubs have off-peak memberships which suit people who work shifts or evenings.

Do fitness classes in your lounge

Want the benefits of the gym without having to leave your living room? New website Virtualgym may just be the answer.It’s a relatively new concept: the site is basically an online database of health and fitness sessions conducted by professionals. It launched at the beginning of last year and we think it’s a great idea.There are as many as 40 new classes each week, and the site has a facility called a ‘Virtual Personal Trainer’ which recommends a course of classes tailored to your individual needs. You can watch the videos live, or you can download them, burn them onto a blank DVD and play them on your TV – genius!

The best thing about Virtualgym.tv is the price. You can pay £5 monthly or you can get annual membership for £45 (with no additional fees). There are also options for quarterly and half-yearly memberships.

Once you’ve registered you can also try out two sessions of your choice absolutely free before you commit to anything.

Transfer fees

If you know someone who has a gym membership which they don’t use (maybe an unwanted gift or a well-intentioned impulse buy), get them to take a look at the conditions of transferring their membership.

The fees for transferring are often less than those of a membership fee so you could cut your costs if the monthly fee isn’t too bad. This doesn’t apply to all gyms though so make sure you check with whichever your friend or family member belongs to.

Go to a University

If you’re a student, or you work in a university, you can get fantastic deals at your campus gym. Lots of universities also open up their services to the general public. The cost for these is usually much lower than that of a normal gym and they’re likely to have reasonably good quality equipment.

Visit : https://gymmembershipfees.com/la-fitness-prices/

The Many Uses of Custom Neon Signs

Ou can use the way of tv, radio, and newspaper to market it in your eating place. But why opt for those pricey advertising and marketing strategies if you may make use of the neon signal? This symbol can genuinely assist you to sell your business and reach humans’ recognition. This sort of advertising mode will the simplest price small amount of greenbacks and in go back enables you to gain more income for your business.

Custom Neon signs are to be had to purchase online. The good component about on-line shops is that they provide massive collections of this image so you can pick out the symbol this is perfect for your commercial enterprise. You can pick from the eye-catching and colorful luminous symbols that could sincerely deliver spark in your commercial enterprise.

You also can customize the symbol in case you need to. Online dealers will come up with a few alternatives including the font fashion and the selection of colors. Otherwise, you may at once contact the manufacturer and set an appointment so that you can communicate to the glass bender concerning the symbol that you need. You can deliver the draft of the image which you created so the bender can paintings on it.

Custom neon symptoms might cost extra bucks but it’s far still value-powerful that the cited kinds of advertisement referred to above. You can opt for flashing symbols to add a piece of interesting function on the symbol.

Neon symptoms also can be best for Open Signs. Passersby and people status on the opposite a part of the street and those who travel with their cars can see the symbol and they’d right now understand that your restaurant is in service.

You can use custom neon signs as an ornamental function within the eating place. A neon image arrow symbol to the bathroom can add interest in your eating place. A ‘cashier’ neon image will supply the clients an easy path to wherein they can pay their orders.

If one part of the eating place is bar wherein liquors and beers are served, you may use a BAR neon sign or beer bottle photo symbol. And to expose gratitude to your customers, you may put a “THANK YOU” symbol right above the exit door.

There are such a lot of ways that custom neon signs may be used for. It is up to you the way you need the symbol to promote it to your business. Just make it readable to customers. Inside and out of doors of your eating place can appearance enticingly luminous with neon symbols. And that glow can convey good fortune on your commercial enterprise through assisting it to obtain fulfillment.